When Crystallizing Public Opinion was written in , it became the first book- length discussion of the scope and function of professional public relations and of . Dangerous Frames: How Ideas about Race and Gender Shape Public Opinion ( Studies in Communication, Media, and Public Opinion) · Read more. Interaction of Public Opinion with the Forces That dealing with the public must take public opinion Opinion is crystallized into desired action, ELB says.
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Bernays Crystallizing Public Opinion - Download as PDF File .pdf) or view presentation slides online. Book by Edward Bernays who wrote about propaganda. BERNAYS, Edward. Crystallizing Public ichwarmaorourbia.tk - Download as PDF File . pdf), Text File .txt) or view presentation slides online. New York: Liveright Publishing Corporation, p. When Crystallizing Public Opinion was written in , it became the first book-length.
He divided his material public. The story of what these leaders in Ameri. Some- House of Representatives Committees.
He Little by little and phase by phase. To the members of the House of Repre. He told the jeweler about amber and problems of Lithuania.
They represented a group sented. He reflected to those tive of a group which had figured largely in the communities whose crystallized opinion would be American news for a number of weeks. Americans that it was an ancient and established. Mass meetings were held in different there as spokesmen for a country which was no cities. Roumania wanted to plead its case be- Lithuania's appeal.
In the same way. Lithuanian situation. The mails carried statements of Lithu. What happened with Roumania is another in- terested.
When the Lithuanian Information Bureau To the senators. The lecture platform resounded to stance. All the body described this campaign. It wanted to tell bought and paid for. The radio carried the rnes. Newspaper advertising was fore the American people.
He for children. Congratulatory editorials were of news value. He talked to visitors. The friendly and large part ignored. This company To counteract this damaging wave of resentment. Fewer trav. He may then advise elers passed through New York on their way to his client to institute a children's diet service. The original technique was the issu. He examined American Importance of early radium treatments for in- literature-books.
The public relations counsel who was This was done specifically with the Waldorf- consulted and asked to remedy the situation. This move. America's popular knowledge with consequent Again. He found that the chief cause Bank. He found animosity and bitterness against An inter-city radio company planned to open New York's apparent indifference to strangers a wireless service between the three cities of New was keeping away a growing number of travelers.
Detroit and Cleveland. The public read these stories printed in the rural and city journals of the with avidity and Roumania became part of country. In its campaign to educate the public on the throughout the country. The public relations consultant. In order to secure a certain homogeneity among Shortly after the World War. The public relations House performance was spread in the news col. It was evident to all who saw the president of the organization realized astutely pictures or read the story that this king had really that to succeed in any measure at all he must stirred the affectionate interest of the national have immediate public support.
Obvi- issued on commercial inter-city radio waves. To present a graphic picture of the ing of women representing Democratic. Repub- affection which the national elements here had lican. One of widely varied interests and affiliations.
The story of the Metropolitan Opera fied support of the League. An interesting illustration of the broad field rate inauguration ceremony. He called in a elements that make up America. IS noted III the efforts which were exerted to nected. Still another is urged to found a scholarship j i in his subject at a leading university.
Cases as diverse as the following are the daily for example. Popular misunderstanding of the work of the One department store is advised to use prices public relations counsel is easily comprehensible in its advertising. Enough has been public taste. Another is advised to change the popular education on the importance of brass facade of his building to conform to a certain and copper to civilization.
French Renaissance tales. One client in America became the basis of the first notably is advised to give up a Rolls-Royce car and to successful move in this country for overcoming download a Ford. One client impinges upon the daily life of the public in an is advised to publish a Bible.
Another client is advised to exhibit his wares in a museum and school. Behind these obvious aloof from the general public and were able to phenomena. It asks questions. Generally speaking. In the same present century is the increased attention which way.
The charitable society which depends upon voluntary contributions for its sup- port has a clear and direct interest in being favor- social. Perhaps the most significant is rather obvious. The tends to regard them as semi-public services.
He points out the legal every shoulder. I saw come strid- the present state and tendency of industrial con. It may be said racy itself. Child discusses in that article the right not begging. They wanted every resolution basis for the right to criticize plays and novels. They sat at every of the critic to say uncomplimentary things about doorway. With regard to the second tendency-the in.
I shall Then he adds. That the pressure of the public for admittance creased readiness of the public to expect infor. January None of us begins the ability to forecast more reliably the volume to understand the consequences. It is no longer possible. Hoover only constants of our thinking have become vari. May Where we act on that theory we British opinion during the Washington confer. I find almost a Opinion" declares that "the significant revolution column article with the heading "Hoover Pre- of modern times is not industrial or economic 01' scribes Publicity for Coal.
It has been may result in the appointment by the Poincare demonstrated. Government of a real propaganda agent to meet conscience.
The Eclair to-day we are to deal with the world beyond our reach. The significant thing. This association charged with a public interest. I find much comment upon the National about them. The best examples. Of recent years. Let us analyze. The subways acting whole-heartedly in their behalf.
Even a service which is in a large measure relations campaign. The department accordingly non-competitive must continually "sell" itself to does exactly this. They strive in this regard to create a feeling of sub-. When the Health Department It cooperates with conventions.
Copeland and his state- public the salient facts ab0. Health Com- profitable not only to bring to t? This department studies th. It cooperates. Its time ments have formed a fairly regular part of the tables.
Publicity is. Such aids as culosis and those following malnutrition are due it affords to the directors of children's camps at generally to ignorance or neglect and that ameli- the Grand Central Station are especially conspic. Large industrial groups. Thus Lith. He may to-day consider. Business and sales are no have assigned a definite place to public relations longer to be had. In this state of affairs it is not at all surpris- In industry and business.
Atlantic Coast Shipbuilders' Association. The work of the publishes a magazine. The Vermonter.
Crystallizing Public Opinion
Similar in. The public.
According to the editorial. To-day we see American cities bureau. It is noteworthy The New York Times printed some time ago an that forty of these associations have incorporated address by the governor of Nebraska. During the war and for a period sively to revealing in detail the industrial and afterwards its main problem was that of satisfy. Had the the public for individual industries and groups.
Americans were once wont to jest about the search work. It is devoted exclu- various forms. Il1 inrl. Afterward one of th em wa s an offi cer in Wash- 'W ithout attemptin g to take too seriously an ir: He cited Barbara Frietchie. N ot one in twen ty thousand Am er- York newspaper. John Smith and a half dozen other s a s instances to prove that they are remembered not for what they did. They all rode. They all got th e signal. Long-fell ow described Paul Revere. So long as this new professional branch two terms that are being encountered more often live up to the possibilities that their title sug- so.
Men and move- ments whose interests will be affected by the important enough to assure a fair and even favor- able hearing for their public relations depart- a tti tude of the public are taking pains to have ments. When Napoleon said. The business of the public relations should merely be called 'publicity man' rests en- counsel is somewhat like the business of the tirely with the individual and the firm that em- attorney-to advise his client and to litigate his ploys him.
There is a familiar tinge to them. Here mob psychology. I make circumstance. As we see it. In are delivered in legislative chambers. The of the theater and the conversation of other men salesman can tell what points to stress to his who.
First of all. But he is not only a dividual. His field of study is the public mind. The politician can tell what for the clear or obscure enunciations of the to emphasize to his audience. The public relations counsel is first of all a Now sensitiveness to the state of mind of the student. After that there are tion. His text books for this study are the facts of Any man can tell you with more or less accuracy life.
He brings the talent of his intuitive under- structive good. But few men have the time or the interest publications. The lawyer can tell ing rooms. He is a practitioner with a wide range As indicative perhaps of the growing impor.
Maybe they. He employs the research campaign. Lippmann finds in these in the New York Times recently. The needle of the exercise of discretion cannot be left to the compass is no more. It is safer to hire a press agent the mercury in the thermometer to variations of who stands between the group and the news- heat and cold than is this expert to the influence papers.
Lippmann goes on to say It is not surprising that the growing interest that "having hired him. On the one Of course. The public relations counsel will nomic or political life of the community. The results field of public relations and to keep them from of his work are often accelerated interest in mat- drifting inadvertently into unfortunate or harm.
He helps to mould the action public point of view. His day-not only the events that are printed but future must depend as much upon the growing the events which are forming hour by hour. As such. He transmits his ideas. He acts in this food products or a railroad system. The economic conditions which have ist. His primary function now is not to bring his On the other hand. The So long as the press remains the greatest single public relations counsel is the lineal descendant.
Crystallizing Public Opinion
H E character and origins of public opinion, T the factors that make up the individual mind and the group mind must be understood if the profession of public relations counsel is to be intelligently practiced and its functions and possibilities accurately estimated.
Society must understand the fundamental character of the work he is doing, if for no other reason than its own welfare. The public relations counsel works with that vague, little-understood, indefinite material called public opinion.
Public opinion is a term describing an ill-de- fined, mercurial and changeable group of indi- vidual judgments. Public opinion is the aggre- gate result of individual opinions-now uniform, now conflicting-of 'the men and women who make up society or any group of society.
In order to understand public opinion, one must go back to the individual who makes up the group. The mental equipment of the average individ- ual consists of a mass of judgments on most of These judgments are the tools of fact that persons who have little knowledge of his daily being and yet they are his judgments, a subject almost invariably form definite and not on a basis of research and logical deduction, positive judgments upon that subject.
Is it, for example, purely an acci- plexity, and difficulty. He will have fairly settled dent that a man belongs to one church rather than views upon the origin and nature of the universe, another or to any church at all? Is it an acci- and upon what he will probably call its meaning; dent that makes Boston women prefer brown he will have conclusions as to what is to happen eggs and New York women white eggs? What to him at death and after, as to what is and what are the factors that work in favor of conver- should be the basis of conduct.
He will know sion of a man from one political party to another how the country should be governed, and why or from one type of food to another?
He will have strong hibition law-why do others abide by it? Why views upon military and naval strategy, the prin- 'is it difficult to start a new party movement- ciples of taxation, the use of alcohol and vacci- or to fight cancer? Why is it difficult to fight nation, the treatment of influenza, the prevention for sex educatiort? Why does the free trader of hydrophobia, upon municipal trading, the denounce protectionism, and vice versa?
The bitterness that has been average man can qualify him to have any opinion brought about by arguments on public questions upon them at all. The rational method ade- is proverbial. Lovers have been parted by bitter quately used would have told him that on the quarrels on theories of pacificism or militarism; great majority of these questions there could be and when an argument upon an abstract question for him but one attitude-that of suspended engages opponents they often desert the main line judgment.
The reader will recall from his own experience How often this is true can be seen from the an almost infinite number of instances in which congressional records of' controversies in which the amateur has been fully prepared to deliver the personal attack supersedes logic. In a re- expert advice and to give final judgment in mat- cent fight against the proposed tariff measures, a ters upon which his ignorance is patent to every protagonist of protection published long vindic- one except himself.
People were so positive that opponents. Logically his discussion should have they burned people whom they suspected of witch- been based only upon the sound economic, social craft: To-day there is an equal number of peo- and political value of the bill as. But people who have made public disapproval of this plan. They stated their no research of the subject pass strong denuncia- opinion that the "American" Valuation Plan, as tory judgments.
Others, no better informed, con- it was called, would endanger the prosperity of sider mediums divinely inspired. To-day the average man has a belief welfare of every country with. Examination reveals the fact refusing to see flaws in their theories. To the Conservative the amazing called "logic-proof compartments. In politics. The The characteristic of the human mind to ad- skilled scientist who may be receptive to any here to its beliefs is excellently summarized in promising suggestion in his own field may out.
Prejudice superseded tain missionaries give money to heathen at the logic. Scientists have lost their lives through public problems.
There is a story that cer- and lack of patriotism. Especially significant is the tend.
We find here with sig. Trot- to make any attempt at understanding a point ter. Trotter to which reference has side of his own field be found quite unwilling been made before. Public opinion may be as much the sources of established beliefs. The difference is due rather to the fundamental assumptions of the antagonists be- ing hostile. The Uniformity is. T H E RE is a divergence of opinion as to whether the public mind is malleable or stubborn-whether it is a passive or an active finds in consequence the rationality of his posi- element.
There is a uniformity of opinion in this coun- Thus the public relations counsel has to con- try upon many issues. On the one hand is the profound be- tion flawless and is quite incapable of detecting lief that "you can't change human nature.
When this uniformity sider the a priori judgment of any public he deals accords with our own beliefs we call it an ex- with before counseling any step that would mod- pression of the public conscience. Naturally enough. These groups see the press. There are graphic instances of Many outside forces. A ence public opinion. They find the public un.
Some of view between the public and these institutions authorities hold that the public mind is stubborn may often be the result of the control exercised in regard to the press and that the press has little by the public mind over these institutions. And while the individual newspaper reader does form. By Hearst papers and the New Yark Call supported the press.
New York was defeated for reelection in It is also note- To answer the question as to the stubbornness worthy that in I mean the daily him. Gaynor was elected Mayor or malleability of the public. The most obvious of these most interesting example is the reelection of forces are parental influence.
They argue from the one to the other. In Boston. Mayor Mitchel of press stands preeminent among the various in. Mayor Hylan of New York by an overwhelming the -press. Americans are a newspaper-reading pub- receptive to their point of view.
They see more than one newspaper every day. This as- Monthly for February. On the contrary. Leupp continues: Walter Lippmann and Upton Sin. These in. How would such authors as Everett magazine for March.
The airy dismissal of some proposition found in Everett Dean Martin's volume on as 'mere newspaper talk' is heard at every social "The Behavior of Crowds. He knows other influences beside the press enter into the that they are constantly falling into false reason- making of a public opinion and that these forces ing about the things within his personal knowl- must never be disregarded in the estimate of the edge.
A vivid statement of the point a community if polled as a jury would concur of view of the man who typifies this group is in it. I b tional difficulty of making distinct facts interest- often unconsciously. Every crowd-group has its magazl1l. The press. Many books. Certain people 1 "Public Opinion" page Lippmann observes that although such a restriction may exist.
A great deal. Y various controlling conditions. I think myself. Let us con- sider again the case of a newspaper. Action and interaction are relations counsel to study carefully the relation.
How this is done will be considered later.. By what standard is the editorial decision reached which includes one kind of news and excludes another kind?
The Times itself has not been. Because of the importance of channels of thouzht communication. He must understand not only what these various forces are.
We The public relations couusel must understand this shall look into this interaction and its effect in fact in its broadest and most detailed implications. Carefully edited violated. Somewhere there must be a standard to what IS not? Who is to decide which of the in-. Davis feels the need for justifying be defined by the editors of the Times in a way the extent to which that paper featured Theo. Those complaints t. Henry t? Beecher was one of the most a right to keep private.
Davis tempted. Tilton's lie. One of the counsel at the what the public is entitled to know.
As soon. Yet it is one of those things which to determine the interaction between the public. Phillips would be found as will conform to the fundamental understand. I will publish it as it stands. There would consent to strike out the last paragraph. There is as much truth the palpable absurdity contained in the last para- in the proposition that the public leads institu.
We must look further for a standard and I shall be glad to publish it. Such a definition tells us nothing more "The editor read it over. I see that. Recognition of this fact comes from a number stitutions lead the public.
See a Problem?
Mencken recognizes As an illustration of the manner in which that the public runs the press as much as the press newspapers are inclined to accept the judgments runs the public. Without that it would be pointless. I fully agree with it It is the office of the public relations counsel all myself. The truth is that while it appears to be form. It is as important to conform "It was published the next morninz. Phil- definite than does the slogan which it attempts lips.
Proof that the public and the institutions that for example. Judge against censorship. In the field of the motion pictures. He recognized that unless that part of the public "This was their method when they were per. The producers. T'Religious and very early ship. Undoubtedly censor. The made by Judge. Rollo Ogden claims this give and ing to the jury's limitations.
As the speaker gets from his hearers in mist what tifies"muckraking'" by finding it neither "ex. Too should be more interested in the polemical than often it gets as dust what it gives back as mud.
Charles Dudley Warner once went the end of it that he has "written of popular so far as to say that no matter how objection- morality very copiously. Action and the lily. Leupp' concludes that "whatever responsibility for the more crying evils of jour- nalism must be divided.
Neither may like take between the public and the press is vital to a the job.
Judge believed its stand would please we may say of the modern press on its less com- its readers. His relation to his supporters is requires no justification. He listens for the echo of view of the man who feels that the public taste of his words.
Ralph Pulitzer nev. Mencken that the opin. The newspaper must Similarly. Hence it follows that the Even Mr.
A middle ground exists between the hypothesis that the public is stubborn and the hypothesis that it is malleable. But to an equally large degree the public responds to the influence of these very same mediums of communication.
The public responds to finer music and better motion pictures and de. He leads his flock whither they indicate a willing- ness to be led. What they want and what they get are fused by some mysterious alchemy.
From Mr. The truth of the matter. Mencken and others it would almost seem to follow that newspapers and other mediums have no standards except those which the public provides. To a large degree the press. Some analysts believe that the public has no opinions except those which various institutions provide ready made for it. The preacher upholds the ideals of society. It influenced the Desire to be informed of what was going on entire procedure. The bare threat of it. Editorials printed in Holland pointed out turned a government.
On June which came back so promptly from them. The full achievement according to the report. The effect of the Hague Con- in reality worried them more than the news. The roth. One 1 "Publicity at Paris. Early announce- driving the four heads of States finally into ment that "the press cannot be admitted" was. April 2. Min- discussion. Nothing concerned the conference ister van Karnebeek. The Franklin Roose- fluence and effectiveness in mutual interaction. Thus it came about that world has recently appointed a counsel on public rela- opinion was ready and anxious to receive the tions to make its aims clear to the public.
It was impossible in Paris not to be happy means of testing popular opinion upon the impressed by the immense advantage of bringing various projects offered in council. Nevertheless each delegation who have to express their opinion in actual maintained clipping bureaus. His own mind is the greatest barrier between him and the facts.
This is compared with the ease of public opinion making in the early Eighteenth Century when the United States was comprised of "small social units with common traditions and a small geographic and social area", and the difficulties of affecting public relations over the increased geographical area of the United States in , where social groupings have "no common ancestry, no common tradition, as such, and no cohesive intelligence".
This difference in demographics, in his opinion, requires the enlistment of any body, institution or individual wishing to engage in public representation, and must enlist the help of an expert well versed in "how to reach groups totally dissimilar as to ideals, customs and even language.
As mentioned before, this work must be carried out through existing channels and mediums of thought influence, as these are inextricably entwined with public trust, sentiment and opinion.
When John Logie Baird introduced his invention to the world in , it took a while for this new trend to catch on, as it does with every medium.
No doubt the hand of public relations was instrumental in the rise of television as a mass medium, one which is now intricately linked with driving and feeding off public opinion, as the internet also is.
Of course, before television, the public relations counsel already had a tool to affect mass communication of an idea, the radio. Television, and the much later internet are merely technological improvements of the radios potential to interconnect the masses. These tools are of course vital to modern opinion making and projecting social cohesion on political and social agendas and thus enforcing a desired illusion of the greater good for all.
This is surely one of the major motivating factors behind perpetual warfare campaigns such the abstracted "war on terror", or public crusades based on impossibilities such as the total eradication of racism.
Unity can be secured only by finding the greatest common factor which will appeal to a large and unhomogeneous group. This, particularly with the press, breeds public mistrust in the medium and the message. This plurality of media outlets is also encouraged at a grassroots level, but still agendas are promoted through them, even if through the guise of criticism.
The presentation of dissent against policy can help to form public opinion in favour of it, despite the negative press. As the age old adage states, any publicity is still free publicity. That these avenues must be existing avenues is both a limitation and an opportunity. The interlocking variance of groups within society often can give the illusion that there is really only two polarities of group interests at play, as manifested most prominently in the illusion of bipartisan politics.
In reality the ideological oppositions most groups use as their identifying factors can give their members the fantasy that only they and their designated enemies exist. This simplistic view of society reduced merely to contradictory viewpoints or opinions is wholly inaccurate, but understandable when one considers that humans love a neat narrative.
Some see modern society divided into divided into capital and labour. The feminist sees the world divided into men and women. The hungry man sees the rich and the poor. The missionary sees the heathen and the faithful. If society were divided into two groups, and no more, then change could come about only through violent upheaval. Bernays again stresses to the budding council on public relations that he must have a fundamental understanding of the complex and interlocking groupings of individuals within society, in order to enable him to "utilize many types of appeal in reaching any one group, which he subdivides for his purposes.
The individuals, of course, think they have arrived at this consensus on the issue, topic or agenda through their own cognition.
The trick is spreading the right initial seed with craft and skill, and the creation of a market for the idea to be sold is largely dependent on this force multiplier of overlapping groups comprising the societal structure.
These changes which come about so stealthily that they remain unobserved in society until long after they have taken place, can be made to yield results in chosen directions. Such changes carry with them modifications in the interests and points of view of those they affect.
They make it possible to modify group and individual reaction. Travel has become far more advanced since Bernays wrote his treatise, and in it he cites the importance air travel was to play in easily uniting public opinion outside of the seeming locality of a nations, or in the case of a vast country such as the US, a states borders.
There will be fewer geographic divisions. For example in , prohibition of alcohol was still a broad social issue, and changes in approach to its application should have been at the forefront of a public relations counsel of the times mind when considering the approach to a campaign, according to Bernays. All this so far seems to indicate a choice to enter the profession requires a dedicated and thoroughly scrupulous and serious person in order to maintain a high level of success.
A public relations counsel is therefore an expert in manipulating and predicting the multiple facets of human instinct, both of the group and the individual.
Perhaps the chief contribution of the public relations counsel to the public and to his clients is his ability to understand and analyze obscure tendencies of the public mind. This is the art of the spectacle: to gain publicity the Public Relations guru must create a spun narrative for public consumption. As with most interactions with the public as a whole, this narrative must be spun simplistically, and the secret to mass appeal in crafting a news narrative is a headline that easily captures the public imagination.
He must isolate ideas and develop them into events so that they can be readily understood and so that they may claim attention as news. In an age where information and its flow has become a valuable currency, the public relations guru holds the power. This function as the creator of news is even more important than his others. These are determinants of a well-placed Public Relations story that still hold true today. He is a creator of events. He saw the potential in its pervasiveness and multi-platform approach, as well as the use of a similar understanding to the work of public relations in terms of understanding the individual and collective minds.
One is that people are stubborn and can't have their minds changed. The other theory is that people are malleable and can be made to think whatever you want them to.
He says that the truth lies between the two theories and that the PR professional's main value to his client is to figure out how to make the message appealing to all types of people.
Bernays' uncle was Sigmund Freud so he mixes in quite a bit about human psychology, especially about our tendency to form "herds" and "bandwagons. People don't have time or the drive to research every single opinion so it's easier to find someone they trust and then fall in line with their leader's opinions.
From the book and also the long introduction at the beginning it sounds like Bernays was very high and mighty as he essentially sorts people into the smart people and the stupid people. It's the smart people, of which there are very few, who have the responsibility of keeping things running and molding peoples' minds to go along with the program. Here is a quote from the introduction about Bernays: "He expressed little respect for the average person's ability to think out, understand, or act upon the world in which they live Bernays then sketched a picture of the public relations expert as a member of the 'intellegent few' who advises clients on how to 'deal with the massesNothing War.
If we is many times as strong as the combined strength look back upon the developments of some such of each of its individual members. Some say it is a management function which jects. In In order to understand public opinion, one must go back to the individual who makes up the group.
Loaded words or phrases can be powerfully evocative, and conjure up powerful, simple imagery, and studied trends show that they tend to work best on the mass mind.