Book: Romeo and Juliet. Romeo and Juliet is a tragedy written early in the career of William Shakespeare about two young star-crossed lovers whose deaths ultimately reconcile their feuding families. It was among Shakespeare's most popular plays during his lifetime and, along with. Di Indonesia sendiri, terjemahan ke dalam bahasa Indonesianya yang berjudul Juliet, too, falls for Romeo, but falls into despair when her Nurse informs her. Romeo and Juliet · King Lear · Othello · The Tragedy of Macbeth. ISBNs: X
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The Tragedy of Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare. No cover available. Download; Bibrec Download This eBook. Romeo & Juliet: The Graphic Novel. Original Text Version. William Shakespeare. First published: December Reprinted: October , October Download Novel Romeo And Juliet Bahasa Indonesia Pdf - Disorder previously known as Multiple Personality Disorder. International Harvester goes off College .
These various reasons causes the girl to vent her anger on him often. The guy endured the suffering in silence. After a couple of years, the guy finally graduated and decided to further his studies overseas. If you allow me, I will take care of you for the rest of my life. Will you marry me? So before he left the country, they got engaged. The girl entered the working society, whereas the guy continued his studies overseas. They kept their love strong through emails and phone calls.
One day, while the girl was on her way to work, she was knocked down by a car that lost control. When she woke up, she saw her parents beside her bed. She realized that she was badly injured.
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She saw her mum crying and wanted to comfort her. But she realized that she could only muster a sigh. She has lost her voice… The doctors explanation was that the impact of the accident on her brain caused her to lose her voice. When she heard her parents comforting her but she was unable to reply them at all, she broke down. During the stay in the hospital, other than crying silently there was nothing else she could do.
Upon reaching home, life seemed to go on normally. However, whenever the phone rang, the ringtone seemed to pierce through her heart. She had no wish of letting the guy know about her condition. She did not want to be a burden to him. Hence, she wrote a letter to him informing him that she does not wish to wait for him to come back any longer. Following that, she sent the engagement ring back to him. In return, the guy sent millions of reply and countless phonecalls… The girl could only drown her sorrows in tears as she ignored them all.
The parents decided to move away, hoping that she could eventually forget everything and be happy. With a new environment, the girl picked up sign language and started a new life. Paris' love for Juliet also sets up a contrast between Juliet's feelings for him and her feelings for Romeo. The formal language she uses around Paris, as well as the way she talks about him to her Nurse, show that her feelings clearly lie with Romeo. Beyond this, the sub-plot of the Montague—Capulet feud overarches the whole play, providing an atmosphere of hate that is the main contributor to the play's tragic end.
Shakespeare uses a variety of poetic forms throughout the play. He begins with a line prologue in the form of a Shakespearean sonnet , spoken by a Chorus. Most of Romeo and Juliet is, however, written in blank verse , and much of it in strict iambic pentameter , with less rhythmic variation than in most of Shakespeare's later plays.
Friar Laurence, for example, uses sermon and sententiae forms and the Nurse uses a unique blank verse form that closely matches colloquial speech. For example, when Romeo talks about Rosaline earlier in the play, he attempts to use the Petrarchan sonnet form.
Petrarchan sonnets were often used by men to exaggerate the beauty of women who were impossible for them to attain, as in Romeo's situation with Rosaline. Early psychoanalytic critics saw the problem of Romeo and Juliet in terms of Romeo's impulsiveness, deriving from "ill-controlled, partially disguised aggression",  which leads both to Mercutio's death and to the double suicide. That hatred manifests itself directly in the lovers' language: Juliet, for example, speaks of "my only love sprung from my only hate"  and often expresses her passion through an anticipation of Romeo's death.
Feminist literary critics argue that the blame for the family feud lies in Verona's patriarchal society. When Tybalt kills Mercutio, Romeo shifts into this violent mode, regretting that Juliet has made him so "effeminate". The feud is also linked to male virility, as the numerous jokes about maidenheads aptly demonstrate. Other critics, such as Dympna Callaghan, look at the play's feminism from a historicist angle, stressing that when the play was written the feudal order was being challenged by increasingly centralised government and the advent of capitalism.
At the same time, emerging Puritan ideas about marriage were less concerned with the "evils of female sexuality" than those of earlier eras and more sympathetic towards love-matches: A number of critics have found the character of Mercutio to have unacknowledged homoerotic desire for Romeo. As Benvolio argues, she is best replaced by someone who will reciprocate.
Shakespeare's procreation sonnets describe another young man who, like Romeo, is having trouble creating offspring and who may be seen as being a homosexual. Goldberg believes that Shakespeare may have used Rosaline as a way to express homosexual problems of procreation in an acceptable way. In this view, when Juliet says " The balcony scene was introduced by Da Porto in He had Romeo walk frequently by her house, "sometimes climbing to her chamber window", and wrote, "It happened one night, as love ordained, when the moon shone unusually bright, that whilst Romeo was climbing the balcony, the young lady A few decades later, Bandello greatly expanded this scene, diverging from the familiar one: Julia has her nurse deliver a letter asking Romeo to come to her window with a rope ladder, and he climbs the balcony with the help of his servant, Julia and the nurse the servants discreetly withdraw after this.
Nevertheless, in October , Lois Leveen speculated in The Atlantic that the original Shakespeare play did not contain a balcony. Leveen suggested that during the 18th century, David Garrick chose to use a balcony in his adaptation and revival of Romeo and Juliet and modern adaptations have continued this tradition. Romeo and Juliet ranks with Hamlet as one of Shakespeare's most performed plays.
Its many adaptations have made it one of his most enduring and famous stories. Scholar Gary Taylor measures it as the sixth most popular of Shakespeare's plays, in the period after the death of Christopher Marlowe and Thomas Kyd but before the ascendancy of Ben Jonson during which Shakespeare was London's dominant playwright.
The First Quarto, printed in , says that "it hath been often and with great applause plaid publiquely", setting the first performance before that date. The Lord Chamberlain's Men were certainly the first to perform it. Besides their strong connections with Shakespeare, the Second Quarto actually names one of its actors, Will Kemp , instead of Peter, in a line in Act Five.
Richard Burbage was probably the first Romeo, being the company's actor, and Master Robert Goffe a boy the first Juliet. All theatres were closed down by the puritan government on 6 September Upon the restoration of the monarchy in , two patent companies the King's Company and the Duke's Company were established, and the existing theatrical repertoire divided between them.
This was a tragicomedy by James Howard, in which the two lovers survive. Otway's version was a hit, and was acted for the next seventy years.
Theophilus Cibber 's adaptation of , and David Garrick 's of both used variations on it. For example, Garrick's version transferred all language describing Rosaline to Juliet, to heighten the idea of faithfulness and downplay the love-at-first-sight theme.
The earliest known production in North America was an amateur one: Garrick's altered version of the play was very popular, and ran for nearly a century.
Her portrayal of Romeo was considered genius by many. The Times wrote: Miss Cushman's Romeo is a creative, a living, breathing, animated, ardent human being. Professional performances of Shakespeare in the midth century had two particular features: Secondly, they were "pictorial", placing the action on spectacular and elaborate sets requiring lengthy pauses for scene changes and with the frequent use of tableaux. Forbes-Robertson avoided the showiness of Irving and instead portrayed a down-to-earth Romeo, expressing the poetic dialogue as realistic prose and avoiding melodramatic flourish.
American actors began to rival their British counterparts. The first professional performance of the play in Japan may have been George Crichton Miln's company's production, which toured to Yokohama in In the 20th century it would become the second most popular, behind Hamlet.
In , the play was revived by actress Katharine Cornell and her director husband Guthrie McClintic and was taken on a seven-month nationwide tour throughout the United States. The production was a modest success, and so upon the return to New York, Cornell and McClintic revised it, and for the first time the play was presented with almost all the scenes intact, including the Prologue. The new production opened on Broadway in December Critics wrote that Cornell was "the greatest Juliet of her time", "endlessly haunting", and "the most lovely and enchanting Juliet our present-day theatre has seen".
His efforts were a huge success at the box office, and set the stage for increased historical realism in later productions. I've always felt that John missed the lower half and that made me go for the other But whatever it was, when I was playing Romeo I was carrying a torch, I was trying to sell realism in Shakespeare.
Peter Brook 's version was the beginning of a different style of Romeo and Juliet performances. Brook was less concerned with realism, and more concerned with translating the play into a form that could communicate with the modern world. He argued, "A production is only correct at the moment of its correctness, and only good at the moment of its success.
Throughout the century, audiences, influenced by the cinema, became less willing to accept actors distinctly older than the teenage characters they were playing. In an interview with The Times , he stated that the play's "twin themes of love and the total breakdown of understanding between two generations" had contemporary relevance.
Recent performances often set the play in the contemporary world. For example, in , the Royal Shakespeare Company set the play in modern Verona.
Switchblades replaced swords, feasts and balls became drug-laden rock parties, and Romeo committed suicide by hypodermic needle. Neil Bartlett's production of Romeo and Juliet themed the play very contemporary with a cinematic look which started its life at the Lyric Hammersmith, London then went to West Yorkshire Playhouse for an exclusive run in Romeo sneaks into the Capulet barbecue to meet Juliet, and Juliet discovers Tybalt's death while in class at school.
The play is sometimes given a historical setting, enabling audiences to reflect on the underlying conflicts. For example, adaptations have been set in the midst of the Israeli—Palestinian conflict ,  in the apartheid era in South Africa,  and in the aftermath of the Pueblo Revolt.
The People vs. In the 19th and 20th century, Romeo and Juliet has often been the choice of Shakespeare plays to open a classical theatre company, beginning with Edwin Booth 's inaugural production of that play in his theatre in , the newly re-formed company of the Old Vic in with John Gielgud , Martita Hunt , and Margaret Webster ,  as well as the Riverside Shakespeare Company in its founding production in New York City in , which used the film of Franco Zeffirelli 's production as its inspiration.
The best-known ballet version is Prokofiev 's Romeo and Juliet. It has subsequently attained an "immense" reputation, and has been choreographed by John Cranko and Kenneth MacMillan among others.
In , Michael Smuin 's production of one of the play's most dramatic and impassioned dance interpretations was debuted in its entirety by San Francisco Ballet. This production was the first full-length ballet to be broadcast by the PBS series " Great Performances: Dance in America"; it aired in Dada Masilo, a South African dancer and choreographer, reinterpreted Romeo and Juliet in a new modern light.
She introduced changes to the story, notably that of presenting the two families as multiracial. At least 24 operas have been based on Romeo and Juliet.
It is occasionally revived. The play influenced several jazz works, including Peggy Lee 's " Fever ". This version updated the setting to midth-century New York City and the warring families to ethnic gangs. Romeo and Juliet had a profound influence on subsequent literature. Before then, romance had not even been viewed as a worthy topic for tragedy.
Romeo and Juliet was parodied in Shakespeare's own lifetime: For example, the preparations for a performance form a major plot arc in Charles Dickens ' Nicholas Nickleby. Romeo and Juliet is one of Shakespeare's most-illustrated works. Leveen imagining the fourteen years leading up to the events in the play from the point of view of the nurse. The nurse has the third largest number of lines in the original play; only the eponymous characters have more lines. The board attracted widespread media criticism and derision after the question appeared to confuse the Capulets and the Montagues,    with exams regulator Ofqual describing the error as unacceptable.
Romeo and Juliet may be the most-filmed play of all time. The latter two were both, in their time, the highest-grossing Shakespeare film ever. Neither critics nor the public responded enthusiastically.
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Cinemagoers considered the film too "arty", staying away as they had from Warner's A Midsummer Night Dream a year before: Stephen Orgel describes Franco Zeffirelli 's Romeo and Juliet as being "full of beautiful young people, and the camera and the lush technicolour, make the most of their sexual energy and good looks".
The play has been widely adapted for TV and film. In , Peter Ustinov 's cold-war stage parody, Romanoff and Juliet was filmed. The film was a commercial and critical success.
The production starred Orlando Bloom and Condola Rashad. The production used RSC actors who engaged with the audience as well each other, performing not from a traditional script but a "Grid" developed by the Mudlark production team and writers Tim Wright and Bethan Marlow. The performers also make use of other media sites such as YouTube for pictures and video.
Title page of the Second Quarto of Romeo and Juliet published in All references to Romeo and Juliet , unless otherwise specified, are taken from the Arden Shakespeare second edition Gibbons, based on the Q2 text of , with elements from Q1 of From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Romeo and Juliet disambiguation.
Act I". The opening act of Romeo and Juliet.
See also: Main article: Characters in Romeo and Juliet. Count Paris is a kinsman of Escalus who wishes to marry Juliet. Mercutio is another kinsman of Escalus, a friend of Romeo. House of Capulet Capulet is the patriarch of the house of Capulet. Lady Capulet is the matriarch of the house of Capulet.
Juliet Capulet is the year-old daughter of Capulet, the play's female protagonist. Tybalt is a cousin of Juliet, the nephew of Lady Capulet. The Nurse is Juliet's personal attendant and confidante.
Rosaline is Lord Capulet's niece, Romeo's love in the beginning of the story. Peter, Sampson, and Gregory are servants of the Capulet household. House of Montague Montague is the patriarch of the house of Montague. Lady Montague is the matriarch of the house of Montague. Romeo Montague , the son of Montague, is the play's male protagonist. Benvolio is Romeo's cousin and best friend. Abram and Balthasar are servants of the Montague household. Others Friar Laurence is a Franciscan friar and Romeo's confidant.
Friar John is sent to deliver Friar Laurence's letter to Romeo. An Apothecary who reluctantly sells Romeo poison.
A Chorus reads a prologue to each of the first two acts. Romeo and Juliet on screen. Shakespeare portal. When performed at Court, inside the stately home of a member of the nobility and in indoor theaters such as the Blackfriars theatre candle lighting was used and plays could be performed even at night. Menninger's Man Against Himself Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Retrieved 2 January Gibbons, Brian, ed.
Romeo and Juliet. The Arden Shakespeare , second series. Thomson Learning. Levenson, Jill L. The Oxford Shakespeare. Oxford University Press. Spencer, T. The New Penguin Shakespeare. Appelbaum, Robert The Pressures of Masculinity in Romeo and Juliet ". Shakespeare Quarterly.
Folger Shakespeare Library. Arafay, Mireia Books in Motion: Adaptation, Adaptability, Authorship. Barranger, Milly S. Margaret Webster: A Life in the Theatre.
University of Michigan Press.
Book: Romeo and Juliet
Bloom, Harold The Invention of the Human. New York: Riverhead Books. Bly, Mary In Alexander, Margaret M. S; Wells, Stanley eds. Shakespeare and Sexuality. Cambridge University Press. Bonnard, Georges A. A Possible Significance? Review of English Studies. Bowling, Lawrence Edward Modern Language Association of America. Branam, George C. Brode, Douglas Shakespeare in the Movies: From the Silent Era to Today.
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Silent Love – Love Story Narrative Text
New Delhi. Archived from the original on 7 May Retrieved 27 December Groves, Beatrice Texts and Traditions: Religion in Shakespeare, — Halio, Jay Romeo and Juliet: A Guide to the Play. Greenwood Press. Halliday, F.
A Shakespeare Companion — Hetrick, Adam; Gans, Andrew 19 November Archived from the original on 26 December Higgins, David H. The Divine Comedy. Oxford World Classics.
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The Tragedy of Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare
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Mosel, Tad Leading Lady: The World and Theatre of Katharine Cornell. Muir, Edward When Romeo opens the tomb, Paris steps out and tries to stop him by provoking him to fight. Keeble, N. Editorial Project Manager: Claudia Fernandes. Romeo and Juliet is one of Shakespeare's most-illustrated works. Capulet meminta Paris untuk menunggu dua atau tiga tahun lagi dan mengundangnya hadir pada pesta dansa Capulet. All references to Romeo and Juliet , unless otherwise specified, are taken from the Arden Shakespeare second edition Gibbons, based on the Q2 text of , with elements from Q1 of Retrieved 27 December The production was a modest success, and so upon the return to New York, Cornell and McClintic revised it, and for the first time the play was presented with almost all the scenes intact, including the Prologue.